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duna f

Extensive Definition

this the river The Danube (In lang-de Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow, run", Slovak Dunaj, Hungarian Duna, Romanian Dunăre, Old Norse Duná, Turkish Tuna, ancient Greek Istros, Serbo-Croatian Dunav/Дунав, Bulgarian and Macedonian Дунав, Russian Дунай) is the longest river in the European Union and Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It originates in the Black Forest in Germany as the much smaller Brigach and Breg rivers which join at the eponymously named German town Donaueschingen, after which it is known as the Danube and flows eastwards for a distance of some 2850 km (1771 miles), passing through several Central and Eastern European capitals, before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine.
Known to history as one of the long-standing frontiers of the Roman Empire, the river flows through — or forms a part of the borders of — ten countries: Germany (7.5%), Austria (10.3%), Slovakia (5.8%), Hungary (11.7%), Croatia (4.5%), Serbia (10.3%), Romania (28.9%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Moldova (1.7%), and Ukraine (3.8%)
In addition, the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Italy (0.15%), Poland (0.09%), Switzerland (0.32%), Czech Republic (2.6%), Slovenia (2.2%), Bosnia and Herzegovina (4.8%), Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, and Albania (0.03%).


The English language has, since the Norman invasion, used the French word Danube. In other languages, particularly those spoken in the countries the river flows through:
The variations all ultimately derived from Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow" and its exact equivalent is found in Welsh name of the river Donwy.
Ancient Greek Istros was a borrowing from Thracian meaning "strong, swift", akin to Sanskrit is.iras "swift", Greek ierós "strong, sacred".



The Danube River reaches into ten other countries. Some Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges and river boats of shallow draught. Ordered from source to mouth, the main tributaries are:
Iller - Lech - Regen (entering at Regensburg) - Isar (entering just beyond Deggendorf) - Inn (entering at Passau) - Enns - Morava (entering near Devín Castle) - Leitha - Váh (entering at Komárno) - Hron - Ipel - Sió - Dráva - Vuka - Tisza - Sava (entering at Belgrade) - Timiş - Velika Morava - Caraş - Jiu - Iskar - Olt - Vedea - Argeş - Ialomiţa - Siret - Prut


The Danube flows through the following countries and cities (from source to mouth ordered):
The Danube flows through four capital cities (shown in bold), more than any other river in the world.


  • Upper Section: From spring to Devín Gate. Danube remains a characteristic mountain river until Passau, with average bottom gradient 0.0012%, from Passau to Devín Gate the gradient lessens to 0.0006%.
  • Middle Section: From Devín Gate to Iron Gate. The riverbed widens and the average bottom gradient becomes only 0.00006%.
  • Lower Section: From Iron Gate to Sulina, with average gradient as little as 0.00003%.

Modern navigation

The Danube basin was the site of some of the earliest human cultures. The Danubian Neolithic cultures include the Linear Pottery cultures of the mid-Danube basin. The third millennium BC Vučedol culture (from the Vučedol site near Vukovar, Croatia) is famous for its ceramics. Many sites of the sixth-to-third millennium BC Vinča culture are sited along the Danube. The river was part of the Roman empire's Limes Germanicus.
Of importance for the Danube is also the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR). The ICPDR is an international organisation consisting of 13 member states (Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine) and the European Union. ICPDR, established in 1998, deals not only with the Danube itself, but with the whole Danube River Basin, which also includes its tributaries and the groundwater resources. The goal of the ICPDR is to implement the Danube River Protection Convention, promoting and coordinating sustainable and equitable water management, including conservation, improvement and rational use of waters for the benefit of the Danube River Basin countries and their people. The Romans often used the river Danube as a border for their vast empire.

Danube Bike Trail

The Danube Bike Trail (also called Danube Cycle Path or the Donauradweg) is a bicycle trail along the river.
The Danube Bike Trail (Donauradweg) is divided into four sections:
  1. Donaueschingen-Passau (550 km)
  2. Passau-Vienna (320 km)
  3. Vienna-Budapest (330 km)
  4. Budapest-Black Sea

Cultural significance

The Danube is mentioned in the title of a famous waltz by Austrian composer Johann Strauss, An der schönen, blauen Donau (By the Beautiful Blue Danube). This piece was composed as Strauss was traveling down the Danube River. This piece is well known across the world and is also used widely as a lullaby.
Another famous waltz about the Danube is The Waves of the Danube () by the Romanian composer Ion Ivanovici (1845–1902), and the work took the audience by storm when performed at the 1889 Paris Exposition.
Joe Zawinul wrote a symphony about the Danube called Stories of the Danube. It was performed for the first time at the 1993 Bruckner festival, at Linz.
The Danube figures prominently in the Bulgarian National Anthem, as a symbolic representation of the country's natural beauty.
The German tradition of landscape painting, the Danube school, was developed in the Danube valley in the 16th century.
The most famous book describing the Danube might be Claudio Magris's masterpiece Danube (ISBN 1-86046-823-3).
The historical fiction Earth's Children series by Jean Auel refers to the Danube as the Great Mother River.
The river is the subject of the film The Ister (official site here).
Parts of the German road movie Im Juli take place along the Danube.
Noted horror writer Algernon Blackwood's most famous short story, "The Willows" concerned a trip down the Danube.
In the PC Space Simulator Freelancer the battle cruiser Donau is destroyed during the first cutscene.

Economics of the Danube

Drinking water

Along its path, the Danube is a source of drinking water for about ten million people. In Baden-Württemberg, Germany, almost thirty percent (as of 2004) of the water for the area between Stuttgart, Bad Mergentheim, Aalen and Alb-Donau (district) comes from purified water of the Danube. Other cities like Ulm and Passau also use some water from the Danube.
In Austria and Hungary, most water comes from ground and spring sources, and only in rare cases is water from the Danube used. Most states also find it too difficult to clean the water because of extensive pollution; only parts of Romania where the water is cleaner still use a lot of drinking water from the Danube.

Navigation and transport

As "Corridor VII" of the European Union, the Danube is an important transport route. Since the opening of the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, the river connects the Black Sea with the industrial centers of Western Europe and with the Port of Rotterdam. The waterway is designed for large scale inland vessels (110×11.45 m) but it can carry much larger vessels on most of its course. The Danube has been partly canalized in Germany (5 locks) and Austria (10 locks). Further proposals to build a number of new locks in order to improve navigation have not progressed, due in part to environmental concerns.
Downstream from the Freudenau river plant's locks in Vienna, canalization of the Danube was limited to the Gabčíkovo dam and locks near Bratislava and the two double Iron Gate locks in the border stretch of the Danube between Serbia and Romania. These locks have larger dimensions (similar to the locks in the Russian Volga river, some 300 by over 30 m). Downstream of the Iron Gate, the river is free flowing all the way to the Black Sea, a distance of more than 860 kilometers.
The Danube connects with the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal at Kelheim, and with the Wiener Donaukanal in Vienna. Apart from a couple of secondary navigable branches, the only major navigable rivers linked to the Danube are the Drava, Sava and Tisza. In Serbia, a canal network also connects to the river; the network, known as the Dunav-Tisa-Dunav canals, links sections downstream.


The importance of fishing on the Danube, which used to be critical in the Middle Ages, has declined dramatically. Some fishermen are still active at certain points on the river, and the Danube Delta still has an important industry.
Important tourist and natural spots along the Danube, including the Wachau valley, the Nationalpark Donau-Auen in Austria, the Naturpark Obere Donau in Germany, Kopački rit in Croatia, Iron Gate and Danube Delta in Romania.

Important National Parks

  • Naturpark Obere Donau (Germany)
  • Nature protection area Donauleiten (Germany)
  • Nationalpark Donau Auen (Austria)
  • Duna-Ipoly Nemzeti Park (Hungary)
  • Naturalpark Kopački Rit (Croatia)
  • Đerdap National park (Serbia)
  • Iron Gate natural park (Romania)
  • Biosphere reserve Danube Delta (Romania)

External links

  • Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law See Danube River. Peace Palace Libray
  • Claudio Magris' gorgeous book, a 'biography' of the river and all the literary places it travels through, is Danube: A Sentimental Journey From the Source to the Black Sea (1986).
  • Patrick Leigh Fermor's wonderful travel book: Between The Woods and the Water: On Foot to Constantinople from The Middle Danube to the Iron Gates (1986) tells of his journey in 1934.
  • Andrew Archibald Paton's 2-volume book: Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic: Contributions to the Modern History of Hungary and Transylvania, Dalmatia and Croatia, Servia and Bulgaria (1861).
duna in Tosk Albanian: Donau
duna in Amharic: ዳኑብ ወንዝ
duna in Old English (ca. 450-1100): Donua
duna in Arabic: دانوب
duna in Aragonese: Río Danubio
duna in Asturian: Ríu Danubiu
duna in Azerbaijani: Dunay
duna in Bengali: দানিউব নদী
duna in Belarusian: Рака Дунай
duna in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Дунай
duna in Bavarian: Donau
duna in Bosnian: Dunav
duna in Breton: Danav
duna in Bulgarian: Дунав
duna in Catalan: Danubi
duna in Chuvash: Танай (юханшыв)
duna in Czech: Dunaj
duna in Welsh: Afon Donaw
duna in Danish: Donau
duna in German: Donau
duna in Estonian: Doonau
duna in Modern Greek (1453-): Δούναβης
duna in Spanish: Danubio
duna in Esperanto: Danubo
duna in Basque: Danubio
duna in Persian: دانوب
duna in French: Danube
duna in Western Frisian: Donau
duna in Irish: An Danóib
duna in Galician: Río Danubio
duna in Gothic: 𐌳𐍉𐌽𐌰𐍅𐌹/Donawi
duna in Korean: 도나우 강
duna in Croatian: Dunav
duna in Indonesian: Donau
duna in Ossetian: Дунай (цæугæдон)
duna in Icelandic: Dóná
duna in Italian: Danubio
duna in Hebrew: דנובה
duna in Swahili (macrolanguage): Danubi (mto)
duna in Latin: Danubius
duna in Latvian: Donava
duna in Luxembourgish: Donau
duna in Lithuanian: Dunojus
duna in Hungarian: Duna
duna in Macedonian: Дунав (река)
duna in Malay (macrolanguage): Danube
duna in Dutch: Donau
duna in Japanese: ドナウ川
duna in Norwegian: Donau
duna in Norwegian Nynorsk: Donau
duna in Occitan (post 1500): Danubi
duna in Low German: Donau
duna in Polish: Dunaj
duna in Portuguese: Rio Danúbio
duna in Romanian: Dunăre
duna in Russian: Дунай
duna in Albanian: Danubi
duna in Sicilian: Danubbiu
duna in Simple English: Danube
duna in Slovak: Dunaj
duna in Church Slavic: Дѹнавъ
duna in Slovenian: Donava
duna in Serbian: Дунав
duna in Serbo-Croatian: Dunav
duna in Finnish: Tonava
duna in Swedish: Donau
duna in Tamil: தன்யூப் ஆறு
duna in Vietnamese: Sông Donau
duna in Turkish: Tuna Nehri
duna in Ukrainian: Дунай
duna in Urdu: دریائے ڈینیوب
duna in Venetian: Danuvio
duna in Chinese: 多瑙河
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